This paper explores the role that independent assessments of statistical systems have in enhancing trustworthiness: including the European Statistical System (ESS) peer reviews. It argues that such reviews are necessary but not sufficient to make the most of investment in official statistics – other steps are also needed (at the European and national level). While a focus on trust is important, the ESS should be building on the foundations of both trust and quality, and concentrating increasingly on ways to enhance the value of European Statistics.